Monday, August 16, 2010

Pakistan Naval History

Active                             August 14, 1947 - Present
Country                          Pakistan
Colors                             Blue & White         
Anniversaries                 Navy Day is on September 8

Chief of Naval Staff  Admiral Noman Bashir
Vice Cheif of Naval Staff Vice Admiral Shahid Iqbal
Vice Admiral Afzal Rahman Khan
Vice Admiral Muzaffar Hassan
24,000      Active personnel
5,000        In reserve
2,000        Member in Maritime Securit Agency
11             Ships
36             Aircraft
              Dock landing ship
              Mine Hunters
12             Missile Boats
12             Hovercraft
11             Frigates
              Auxiliary ships
Indo-Pakistan war of 1965
Indo-Pakistan war of 1971  
Atlantique Incident  
Tsunami relief Operation
The birth of Royal Pakistan Navy came with the creation of Pakistan on the historic day of 14 August 1947.
The Pakistan Navy (Urdu: پاک بحریہ Pak Bahr’ya) is the naval branch of the Pakistani Armed Forces. It is responsible for Pakistan’s 1,046 kilometer (650 mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the defense of important harbors. Navy day is celebrated on September 8 in commemoration of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.  
The foundation of the Royal Pakistan Navy came at creation of nation of Pakistan on 14 august 1947. The Armed Forces Reconstitution Committee (AFRC) divided the Royal Indian Navy between both India and Pakistan. The Royal Pakistan Navy secured two sloops,two frigatesfour minesweeperstwo naval trawlersfour harbor launches and some 358 personnel (180 officers and 34 ratings) and was given a number of Harbor Defense Motor Launches. It was also given a high percentage of the delta areas on the Pakistan coast.
“ Today is a historic day for Pakistan, doubly so for those of us in the Navy. The Dominion of Pakistan has come into being and with it a new Navy – the Royal Pakistan Navy – has been born. I am proud to have been appointed to command it and serve with you at this time. In the coming months, it will be my duty and yours to build up our Navy into a happy and efficient force.” Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan.”
The beginning
Frigate Shamsher in 1951
The Royal Pakistan Navy saw no action during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 as all the fighting was restricted to land warfare. In 1956 the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was proclaimed under the 1956 constitution. The prefix Royal was dropped and the service was re-designated as the Pakistan Navy, or “PN” for short. The PN Jack and Pakistan flag replaced the Queen’s colour and the white ensign respectively. The order of precedence of the three services changed from Navy,Army, Air force to Army, Navy, Air Force.
In February 1956, the British government announced supplying of several major surface combatants to Pakistan. These warships, a cruiser andfour destroyers were purchased with funds made available under the US Military Assistance Program. The acquisition of a few additional warships that is two destroyers, eight coastal minesweepers and an oiler (between 1956–63) was the direct result of Pakistan’s participation in the anti-Communist defence pacts of SEATO and CENTO.

Indo-Pakistan war of 1965

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 the navy was involved in a conflict for the first time. Apart from carrying out successful bombardment of the coastal town of Dwaraka - code named Operation Dwarka, the navy’s submarine PNS Ghazi which was Pakistan’s first submarine and remained the flagship submarine for Pakistan Navy till deployed against Indian Navy’s western fleet at Bombay (Mumbai) port.
Daphne class Submarine Ghazi (S-134)

Indo-Pakistan war of 1971

PNS Nazim which previously took part in the Vietnam and Korean wars with the USN
Karachi, the hub of Pakistan’s maritime trade, housed the headquarters of the Pakistan Navy and almost the entire naval fleet. On December 4 the Indian Navy launched a naval attack, Operation Trident, consisting of 3 OSA class missile boats escorted by two anti-submarine patrol vessels. Nearing the Karachi port, they detected Pakistani presence and launched their SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles.
SS-N-2 Styx anti-ship missiles
The obsolescent Pakistani ships had no viable defence against such missiles and, as a result, the PNS Muhafiz and PNS Khyber were both sunk while the PNS Shahjahan was severely damaged.
PNS Muhafiz
PNS Muhafiz 
   PNS Khyber
   PNS Khyber 
  PNS Shahjahan
PNS Shahjahan

On 8 December 1971 the PNS Hangor, a Pakistani Daphné class submarine, sank the Indian frigate INS Khukri off the coast of Gujarat, India. This was the first sinking of a warship by a submarine since World War II. 18 officers and 176 sailors of the Indian navy were killed in this operation. The same submarine also damaged another warship, INS Kirpan. Attempts were then made by Pakistan to counter the Indian missile boat threat by carrying out bombing raids over Okha harbour, the forward base of the missile boats. Another Indian attack on the Pakistani coast, named Operation Python, occurred on the night of 8 December 1971. A small group of Indian vessels, consisting of a missile boat and two frigates, approached Karachi. The Indian ships sank the Panamian vessel Gulf Star, while the Pakistan Navy’s Dacca and the British ship SS Harmattan were damaged. Pakistani fuel reserves were also destroyed by the Indian vessels.
With East Pakistan having been surrounded on all three sides by the Indian Army, the PN was attempting to prevent Indian access to the coast. The PN’s only long range submarine, PNS Ghazi, was deployed to the area but, according to neutral sources, it sank en route under mysterious circumstances. Pakistani authorities state that it sank either due to internal explosion or detonation of mines which it was laying at the time. The Indian Navy claims to have sank the submarine, but this is disputed by some Indian military officers. The submarine’s destruction enabled the Indian Navy to enforce a blockade on then East Pakistan.
  PNS Ghazi
The damage inflicted by the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force on the PN stood at seven gunboats, one minesweeper, two destroyers, three patrol crafts belonging to the coast guard, 18 cargo, supply and communication vessels, and large scale damage inflicted on the naval base and docks in the coastal town of Karachi. Three merchant navy ships; Anwar Baksh, Pasni and Madhumathi;and ten smaller vessels were captured. Around 1900 personnel were lost, while 1413 servicemen were captured by Indian forces in Dhaka. The Indian Navy lost 18 officers and 176 sailors and a frigate, while another frigate was damaged and a Breguet Alize naval aircraft was shot down by the Pakistan Air Force. According to one Pakistan scholar, Tariq Ali, the Pakistan Navy lost a third of its force in the war.The primary reason for this loss has been attributed to the central command’s failure in defining a role for the Navy, or the military in general, in East Pakistan. Since then the Navy has sought to improve the structure and fleet by putting special emphasis on sub-surface warfare capability as it allows for the most efficient way to deny the control of Pakistani sea lanes to an adversary.

Post war

The Navy sought to diversify its purchases instead of depending solely on the United States, which had placed an arms embargo on both India and Pakistan. It sought more vessels from France and China. The Pakistan Navy thus became the first navy in South Asia to acquire land based missile capable long range reconnaissance aircraft. During the 1980s the Pakistan Navy enjoyed un-preceded growth. It doubled its surface fleet from 8 to 16 surface combatants in 1989. In 1982, the Reagan administration approved US$3.2 billion military and economic aid to Pakistan. Pakistan acquired eight Brooke and Garcia-class frigates from US Navy on a five year lease in 1988. A depot for repairs, ex-USS Hector followed the lease of these ships in April 1989. However after the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989 US President George Bush was advised to no longer certify that Pakistan was not involved in the development of nuclear weapons and the Pressler’s Amendment was invoked on 1 October 1990. The lease of the first Brooke class frigate expired in March 1993, the remaining in early 1994. This seriously impaired the Pakistan Navy, which was composed almost entirely of former US origin ships. Pakistan began to concentrate on self-reliance for its military equipment needs.
The PN began negotiations with China to lease a Chinese Type 091 Han class nuclear submarine after rival India began leasing a Russian Charlie 1 class nuclear submarine. Negotiations were cancelled when the Russian submarine was returned in 1991.
Type 091 Han class
 Charlie 1 class

Atlantique incident

The Atlantique Incident was a major international incident on 10 August 1999 where a Pakistan Navy plane (Breguet Atlantic) with 16 on board was shot down in the border area of the Kutch region by Indian Air Force jets, with Pakistan and India both claiming the aircraft to be in their respective airspace. However, the wreckage fell well within Pakistani territory, giving credence to the Pakistani claim. The Indian Air Force stated that the Atlantique was trying to return to Pakistani airspace after intruding more than 10 nautical miles and as such was headed towards Pakistan. At the speed of 400 knots at which the shootdown occurred most of the wreckage could have been expected to land at least 25 miles from the shootdown; the fact that all of the wreckage fell in Pakistani territory would tend to vindicate Pakistani claims that the aircraft did not violate Indian airspace. This incident resulted in escalated tensions between the two neighbouring countries. 
   Breguet Atlantic

P3C Orion Crash

In October 1999, a Pakistan Naval surveillance aircraft crashed while on routine exercise towards the costal town of Pasni in Baluhistan. 21 Personnel including 11 sailors and 10 officers died in the incident. The incident was marked as a technical failure, and no enquiry was made into the crash. P3C Orion were originally developed for the US by Lockheed Martin.

Tsunami relief activities

The Navy has been involved in some peacetime operations, most notably during the tsunami tragedy that struck on December 26, 2004. Pakistan sent vessels to Sri Lanka and the Maldives to help in rescue and relief work.

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